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The cutural transformation of society

During the second Interstadial of the Last Glaciation, around 40,000 years ago, the sea-people of the Persian Gulf hunted Neanderthal female babies to rear as slaves, and eventually interbred with them. The Neanderthal females and their cross-bred offspring formed a subsidiary caste of workers greatly valued as servants of the sea-people. The effects of this were threefold

  • The local tribes or tribes that adopted this new mode of life became intrinsically more powerful than their neighbours.
  • Extending hunting for Neanderthal female babies eventually led to the decimation of pure-bred Neanderthals
  • As with insect societies, the workers were not free to hunt for themselves and have to be provided with durable food that can be rationed. In this case. the food selected was the seed of wild cereal grasses. The consequences of this remained a local phenomenon until the Last Glaciation ended some tens of thousands of years later.
  • Once the cultural barriers between the two races had been breached, the following millennia saw the rise of a new hybrid population of hunters in Asia and Europe that genetically linked the facial and body hair of Neanderthal with the smooth skin of the Islanders. This new Caucasoid race, exhibited hybrid vigour and was better adapted to terrestrial northern life than the Islanders. Eurasian hunting culture was improved by the combination of these two different traditions.

Upper Paleolithic

Dual purpose hut/boat from mammoth bones and hides with Upper Palaeolithic cavings and cave paintings

The Caucasoid race, that replaced Neanderthal, began a steady improvement in hunting weaponry, techniques and art, that continued until the end of the last glaciation. Caucasoid hunters ranged from western Europe to Japan and Alaska.

When the sea rose at the end of the last glaciation, those isolated in Alaska, survived to move south to continue hunting, until merged into the predominantly Mongoloid (“Islander”) population which had arrived by sea.

Those isolated in Japan flourished until later driven from Honshu to Hokkaido by “navigators” from Antarctica . These Caucasoid “Europeans” just survive their today as the Ainu.

Thousands of years later, the Caucasoid population of northern Asia was eventually driven westward into Europe by the sea-people of the Amur River who, as a result of climatic changes, exchanged a nomadic life afloat for an analogous one on land, retaining their mobility by taming the wild horses of the steppe.


The feeding of slaves with a diet of cereal seeds had long been a local phenomenon confined to an area north of the Persian Gulf . The warm climate of the Holocene was destined to change all that.

The expansion of slavery was strictly limited by the availability of this diet, but all that began to change after an inventive slave realised that the heads of mutant strains of wild wheat were not viable in the wild because they could not scatter their seeds and could instead be gathered and planted conveniently near home. Thus Agriculture was born and a new world of master and slave was created.

Archaeology has always had a problem with agriculture and Robert J. Wenke, in his book 'Patterns in Prehistory', suggests that one would surely expect patient archaeological research to be able to find the reasons for agriculture.

. . . if we were to explain agricultural origins in this fashion, it seems not implausible that we might formulate similar explanations for the origins of writing, cities, warfare, state religions etc.

Also, perhaps, for the origins of slavery, the dark thread that remains unbroken from our pre-history right up to the present time. Wenke continues:

The diversity of theoretical approaches to archaeology suggests that, as a discipline, archaeology has entered a period of loss of confidence in its theoretical structure – the kind of period, as it happens, that in other disciplines has often presaged great advances in method and theory.

Perhaps we are getting there at last! The owners of slaves require a means of providing sustenance for those it enslaves. The origins of agriculture lie in this necessity to feed and confine and the advantages of hierarchical society in terms of comfort and power for the ruling class and tribal warfare are obvious.

Einkorn wheat and barley were domesticated and widely grown and essential to the elite were the wizards who began to master the mysteries, real mysteries, even to us, of domesticating wild plants and animals. From Mesopotamia and Anatolia , sea-people began to spread these benefits of the new society.

Every expedition by sea and river found it necessary to carry at least one agronomist to feed the crew at each stopping place. Along Mediterranean routes, settlers cultivated rye as a new cereal and flax for the new craft of weaving. North through the Black Sea and Danube they found ways of cultivating broad beans, chick peas and lentils.

Voyaging eastward they domesticated rice and millet Westward to the Canary Isles emigrants drifted to the Caribbean, where settlers in Mesoamerica domesticated wild maize. Their descendants cultivated potatoes, tomatoes, squashes and tetraploid cotton for fine weaving.

Smooth stone tools, ground tediously by slave labor, replaced the beautiful flint blades of the free hunters and gave this period its characteristic name - Neolithic.

In some parts of the world, this culture survived into recent times, For instance, in the Canary Islands where the Spanish found it unchanged. Neolithic voyagers there had found no suitable stone, either flint or obsidian, to make stone tools for maintaining and building their ships. So they remained marooned for thousands of years.

Catal Huyuk in southern Turkey, is an important archaeological site, where various crafts were collected that may have been developed separately over thousands of years previously.

Pre-dating the first civilization by some three thousand years, it was the first industrial town where metals, fabrics and many other luxury goods were manufactured for overseas trade.

The town could have housed several thousand slaves, fed from surrounding farms. They appear to have been securely quartered in cells without doors or windows built of mud-brick, with openings in the roofs that could have been secured as necessary with escape only by ladders against the walls.


All these developments were in the northern hemisphere, but equally important developments were taking place in the southern oceans surrounding the continent of Antarctica. During the migration from the Mascarene Plateau, some Islanders would have drifted southward in the Mozambique Channel and been carried westward. Survivors would have found havens in the southernmost tips of Australia, South America and South Africa. The descendants of these people still had genetic and linguistic connections until recently and their Khoisan group of ‘click’ languages is now nearly extinct, except in parts of South Africa.

The 'Roaring Westerlies' of the Southern Ocean sweep unhindered round the continent of Antarctica. It was by using these thet Elllen MacArthur was able to make a record passage round the world in a three-hulled “raft”. In doing this, she may have been following the route of the first mariners who circumnavigated the earth. Of course that original diaspora took place hundreds of thousands of years ago, but there is increasing evidence that climate change, some thirty thousand years ago, freed the coasts of Antarctica from ice for several thousand years.

Between 30,000 and 7,000 years ago the coasts of the Antarctic continent may have been free of ice for long enough for the development of navigable rafts using balsa-wood from South America. Using the constant westerly winds and currents, these sea-people would always have havens to starboard and so were able to circumnavigate the globe and this enabled them to develop the the arts of astronomical navigation, mathematics and writing. When re-glaciation made Antarctica uninhabitable, they sailed northwards thus disseminating their new found skills.

When the southern navigators reached the Persian Gulf , they found a thriving ‘Ubaid' township rather like Catal Huyak. The legendary figure of the 'amphibious' Oannes, who brought the art of building in timber, writing, astronomy and mathematics to the world, was recorded in Sumerian texts that had to be learned and copied by successive generations, “... all the things that make for the amelioration of life, were bequeathed to men by Oannes and since that time no further inventions have been made”

Eventually a symbiosis between the distinctly different cultures of slave-owners and the mariners led to the founding of the first civilization at Sumer. The concept of civilization spread along the same sea-routes as had hierarchy and agriculture.

The craft of pottery originated in Antarctica, as a means of carrying fresh water, and then spread from Japan. When it reached the Middle East, copper was discovered from decorative ores used in the kilns. When copper smelting reached Malaysia, chance contamination with tin initiated the Bronze Age, the swan-song of sea-faring supremacy.
The pyramid of Teotihuacan, Mexico has the same base measurement as the pyramid of Cheops in Egypt indicating that there was a link between the early Mesoamerican and Egyptian civilisations bridging about 5,000 years. This link could only have been by boat.
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